Cannabinoids | Terpenes | Conditions | Effects

Cannabis has been shown to have many beneficial effects on users.The Cannabis Review | Effects is a collection of scientific studies that identifies the molecules, found in cannabis, that have specific effects on users, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compound
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the molecule was in treating the
condition.

major Biological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderate Biological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minor Biological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following scientific studies establish the potential effectiveness for treating specific conditions using molecules found in cannabis. The study names link to the full studies; click to view.

Effect Magnitude Cannabinoid/ Terpene Condition Treated Amount Used Study Grade
Analgesic (major) Borneol Pain NA
A clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuropathic Pain 25mg
Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
(moderate) Camphor Pain NA
Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism.

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CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Central neuropathic pain 25mg/mL
Oromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Multiple sclerosis 2-10inhalations
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis

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Pain NA
An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics

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Peripheral pain response NA
(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Caryophyllene oxide Pain 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Eucalyptol Pain NA
Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Limonene Algesic NA
Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Linalool Pain NA
Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice.

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Terpineol Writhe NA
A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple Sclerosis NA
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis

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Pain NA
An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics

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(minor) Myrcene Hyperalgesia NA
Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple Sclerosis 10mg
Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial.
Pain 5mg
Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain

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Anesthetic (moderate) Caryophyllene oxide Pain 56.9% of mixture
Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Linalool Reflexes 0.01 – 10 μg/ml
Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
(minor) Guaiol Stress NA
Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Anti-acne (major) THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Acne NA
Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
Antiarthritic (major) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Arthritis 5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
Antiasthma (major) Geraniol Asthma 100 or 200mg/kg
Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Antibacterial (major) Camphene Phytopathogenic Bacteria 5000 MIC, mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
β-Caryophyllene Periodontal disease NA
Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Geranyl Acetate Bacterial contamination 7.6% of mixture
Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Humulene Bacterial contamination 14.21% of mixture
In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Myrcene Bacterial contamination NA
New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Ocimene Bacterial contamination 0.03–40.49% of mixture
Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo

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α-Pinene / β-Pinene Bacterial contamination α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)

Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
(moderate) α-trans-Bergamotene Buccal bacteria 29.90% of mixture
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Bacterial contamination NA
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study

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CBG
(Cannabigerol)
MRSA NA
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBN
(Cannabinol)
MRSA NA
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

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P-Cymene Bacterial contamination 0.25–1.25mM
Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Fenchol
(Fenchyl alcohol )
Bacterial contamination NA
Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Ocimene Bacterial contamination NA
Antibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition
(minor) Caryophyllene Bacterial contamination 10-35% of mixture
Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D
Anticancer (major) Borneol Cancer NA
Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage

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CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cancer NA
The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model

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CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Glioblastoma multiforme NA
A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Caryophyllene Cancer 10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Geraniol Prostate cancer NA
Geraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Humulene Cancer 32μg/mL
Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Cancer α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)

Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Terpinolene Breast tumor,
prostate carcinoma
8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Glioblastoma multiforme NA
A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
(moderate) Camphene Cervical cancer NA
The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cancer 200mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
cancer NA
Cannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
Caryophyllene Cancer 7.8–500lg/mL
Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene oxide Cancer 17.90% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Linalool Breast cancer NA
Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Colon cancer 100μg/kg,
200μg/kg

Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Prostate cancer NA
Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Terpineol Cancer 3 or 6mM
α-Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Hepatocellular carcinoma 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg

4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
Liver cancer 320μg/ml
γ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Terpinolene Brain tumour 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
(minor) Linalool Lung cancer NA
A comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Anticonvulsant (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Epilepsy 1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
CBDV
(Cannabidivarin)
Epilepsy NA
Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin

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CBN
(Cannabinol)
Tonic-clonic seizure NA
Anticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
Isopulegol Seizures NA
Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
Linalool Epelipsy NA
Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Epelipsy 0.25mg/kg
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
(minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Epilepsy NA
Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy–from receptors to clinical response
Caryophyllene Seizures 100mg/kg
Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Antidepressant (major) CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Depression 20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg

Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Camphor Depression 23.77% of mixture
An Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Depression 30mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors

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Immobility 10–60nmol
Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Limonene Immobility 10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Linalool Anxiety and depression NA
Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Depression 50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg

Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Phellandrene Immobility 10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Depression NA
Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Immobility 2.5mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Posttraumatic stress disorder 5mg
Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Antidiabetic (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Diabetes mellitus 100mg
PEfficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
D-Limonene Diabetes mellitus NA
Protective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Diabetes mellitus 5mg
Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Antidyspnoea (moderate) CBD
Cannabidiol)
Breathing Difficulties 10mg
Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
Antidystonic (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Dystonia 200mg
Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic and Parkinsonism-aggravating (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Dystonia 100-600mg
Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Parkinson’s disease 100-600mg
Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antiemetic (major) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Emetic 5mg,
10mg,
15mg

Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications

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(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Nausea 20mg/kg
Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus

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CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
Nausea 0.5mg/kg
Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation

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THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Emetic NA
Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine

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Multiple Sclerosis 15mg/m2
Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Nausea 8.4mg,
16.9mg

Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac

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Vomiting NA
Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
(minor) CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
Nausea 0.1μg/kg
Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Emetic NA
THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient–the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference
Antiepileptic (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Epilepsy 200-300mg
Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients

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Antifibrosis (moderate) Borneol Oral submucous fibrosis 18.75 to 300μg/ml
Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Antifungal (major) Borneol Fungal contamination NA
Borneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Camphene Phytopathogenic fungi NA
Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
P-Cymene Phytopathogenic fungi NA
Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
Farnesene Fungal contamination 14.6–16.4% of mixture
Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
D-Limonene Fungal contamination NA
Rapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea
Nerolidol Fungal contamination NA
Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Terpinolene Malassezia furfur NA
Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
(moderate) β-Caryophyllene Phytopathogenic fungi 16.98% of mixture
Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Cymene Phytopathogenic fungi 2% of mixture
Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
P-Cymene Fungal contamination 1000ppm
Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague

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Myrcene Fungal contamination 47.7–84.6% of mixture
Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Ocimene Fungal contamination 30.4% of mixture
Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species

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Phellandrene Fungal contamination 1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L

Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Sabinene Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans 29.% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Fungal contamination 31.1% of mixture
In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower

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Terpinolene Botrytis cinerea NA
Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
(minor) D-Limonene Fungal contamination 56% of mixure,
57.5% of mixure

Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species
Sabinene Fungal contamination 29% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Antiglaucoma (moderate) CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Glaucoma NA
A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Glaucoma 2.8% of mixture
Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension
(minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Glaucoma 20mg,
40mg

Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Glaucoma < 0.4% of mixture
Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma

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Antigastroesophageal reflux (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations 20mg
Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
Antihyperactivity (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Tourette’s Syndrome 10mg
Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial

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Antihyperanalgesia (moderate) P-Cymene Hyperalgesia 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Limonene Mechanical hyperalgesia 10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Hyperalgesia 10mg/kg
Limonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Phellandrene Cold and mechanical hyperalgesia 11mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Antihyperlipidemic (moderate) Camphene Hyperlipidemic 30μg/gr
Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Antiinflammatory (major) α-Bisabolol Edema NA
Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
Borneol Inflammation NA
Analgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Colitis NA
The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
Edema NA
Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene

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Inflammation-induced hypermotility 10mg/kg
Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
Microbiological contamination NA
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Acute Pancreatitis 0.5mg/kg
Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
AD-related neuroinflammation 2.5 or 10mg/kg
Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
Chronic Pain 2.5–20mg/kg
The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Diabetic Complications NA
Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

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Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseases NA
Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Uveitis 5mg/kg
Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Irritable bowel syndrome NA
Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
β-Caryophyllene Rheumatoid arthritis 100mg/kg,
300mg/kg

Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of β-Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Caryophyllene oxide Inflammation 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Cymene Lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury NA
Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Eucalyptol Acute lung injury 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg

Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Airway hypersecretion 200mg
Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Humulene Edema NA
Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds α-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isopulegol Edema 22.02% of mixture
In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil
Limonene Edema 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and AntinociceptiveAntinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
D-Limonene TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation 10mg/kg
Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Linalool Inflammation NA
Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Sabinene Inflammation 29% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
α-Terpineol Edema 6.2% of mixture
Chemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly 200mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
(moderate) α-trans-Bergamotene Pleurisy 7% of mixture
Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
α-Bisabolol Inflammation NA
Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
Borneol Oral mucositis 1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture

Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Camphor Arthritis NA
Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Acute lung injury 20mg/kg
Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Inflammation 5–40mg/kg
Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
Retinal Inflammatory NA
Mediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatic diseases NA
Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Neuroinflammation NA
A Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
CBGA
(Cannabigerolic Acid)
Inflammation NA
Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa
Δ-3-Carene Edema NA
Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri

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P-Cymene Hyperalgesia,
Pleurisy
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Inflammation 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Eucalyptol Colitis 200mg/kg,
400mg/kg

1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Edema,
Pulmonary inflammation
NA
Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Edema NA
Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Geraniol Atherosclerosis 100mg/kg
Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Isopulegol Edema NA
Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Linalool Edema NA
α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Neuropathic pain NA
(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Menthol Chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitis NA
The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Myrcene Inflammation 47.7–84.6% of mixture
Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
β-Myrcene Osteoarthritis NA
Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
Phellandrene Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
Phytol Edema 7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Inflammation NA
α-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Sabinene Lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma triggered macrophages 29.% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Terpineol Edema NA
A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Terpineol-4-ol LPS-stimulated human macrophages NA
Terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Intestinal inflammation NA
Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury NA
Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
(minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neuroinflammatory diseases NA
Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
Sepsis NA
Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
Inflammation 2μM
Cannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
Caryophyllene Parkinson’s disease 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Eucalyptol Mosquito larvae 100mg/L
Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Crohn’s Disease 115mg
Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Edema NA
Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
Antileishmanial (moderate) Nerolidol Leishmania species 100μM
Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol

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Antileukemic (major) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Friend leukemia 200mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Antimalarial (moderate) Nerolidol Malaria 1000mg/kg
Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
α-Terpineol Malaria 22.6% of mixture
Composition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Antimicrobial (major) Camphene Inflammation and pain-related processes NA
Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Farnesene Microbiological contamination 51.5% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
D-Limonene Food-related microorganisms NA
Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Phellandrene Hypernociception 50mg/kg
Antinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Microbiological contamination 10.5 % of mixture
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics
Terpineol Microbiological contamination NA
Antimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
(moderate) Borneol Microbiological contamination 4.91% of mixture
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Camphene Microbiological contamination NA
The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Microbiological contamination NA
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis satiWa: A Structure-Activity Study
Caryophyllene Microbiological contamination 7.8–500lg/mL
Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene oxide Microbiological contamination 60 to 80μg/ml
Compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
β-Cedrene Microbiological contamination 6.1% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
P-Cymene Microbiological contamination 32.6mL/L
Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum O Schwarz & PH Davis

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Isoborneol Microbiological contamination 14.66% of mixture
Essential Oil Composition, Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Activities of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) From São Gonçalo do Abaeté, Minas Gerais, Brazil
D-Limonene Microbiological contamination 94% of mixture
Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.
Myrcene Microbiological contamination NA
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

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α-Pinene / β-Pinene Microbiological contamination 50μg/mL
Biological Activities of a-Pinene and β-Pinene Enantiomers

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Terpinolene Microbiological contamination 8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
(minor) α-Bisabolol Halatosis NA
The antimicrobial activity of α-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
Cedrol Microbiological contamination 6.3% of mixture
Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
P-Cymene Microbiological contamination 5.33% of mixture
Antimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals
Guaiol Microbiological contamination 8,2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

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Myrcene Microbiological contamination NA
Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils

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Terpineol Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria NA
Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
α-Terpineol Antimicrobial 13.0% of mixture
Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
Antimutagenic (minor) Myrcene Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes 1,000μg/ml
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Antinausea (minor) THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Nausea 10mg/kg
Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
Antinociceptive (major) P-Cymene Writhe 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Multiple sclerosis NA
Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Isopulegol Nociception NA
Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Limonene Writhe 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Linalool Nociception NA
Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Writhe 25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg

(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple Sclerosis NA
Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Pain 1mg/kg,
5mg/kg

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats

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(minor) Linalool Glutamate induced pain NA
Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
Antiobesity (moderate) α-Cedrene Obesity 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Obesity NA
Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients.

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Antioxidant (major) α-trans-Bergamotene Oxidative stress 29.9% of mixture
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
β-Cedrene Oxidative stress 6.1% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Farnesene Oxidative stress 51.5% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Myrcene Oxidative stress NA
Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells

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Nerolidol Oxidative stress NA
Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves
α-Terpineol Oxidative stress NA
Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit

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(moderate) CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Oxidative stress NA
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study
Caryophyllene Oxidative stress 10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Parkinson’s disease 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Caryophyllene oxide Oxidative stress 17.9% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Cymene Oxidative stress NA
Evaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
P-Cymene Oxidative stress NA
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)

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Guaiol Oxidative stress 8,2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Myrcene Oxidative stress NA
Antioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver

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Nerolidol Oxidative stress 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test

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Sabinene Oxidative stress 29.% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Terpineol Oxidative Stress NA
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Terpinolene Oxidative stress 11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells

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(minor) Farnesene Superficial scald NA
Superficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
Myrcene Oxidative stress NA
Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils
α-Terpineol Oxidative stress NA
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Oxidative stress NA
Understanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
Antiproliferative (major) α-Terpineol Chronic myelogenus leukemia 12.66% of mixture
Phytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cancer 1–10μM
Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms
Terpineol Cancer NA
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
(minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cancer NA
Physiological intestinal oxygen modulates the Caco-2 cell model and increases sensitivity to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol
α-Terpineol Leukemia NA
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Antipsychotic (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Hyperlocomotion 15–60mg/kg
Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
Schizophrenia 0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM

Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Schizophrenia 2.5mg,
5mg

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
(minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Psychotic Experiences NA
Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Antispasticity (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Multiple Sclerosis NA
Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis

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THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple Sclerosis 33% of mixture
The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)

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Spasticity 10 or 5mg
Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol

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(minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Multiple sclerosis 12mg
The effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity
Spasticity NA
Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Spasticity NA
Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Anthrombotic (moderate) Borneol Thrombosis NA
The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Antitremor (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple sclerosis NA
Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
Antitumor (major) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cancer NA
Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma

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CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Cancer NA
Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells
β-Caryophyllene Tumor NA
β-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
β-Myrcene Lung adenocarcinoma 9.29% of mixture
Composition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cancer 0.5mg
Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines

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CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Cancer 31.3lμ/mL
Synthesis and antitumor activity of cannabigerol
CBN
(Cannabinol)
Tumor 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg

Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Humulene Cancer NA
Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by α-humulene as possible mechanism of action
Linalool Cancer NA
Linalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Glioblastoma multiforme NA
A pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
Anxiolytic (major) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anxiety 600mg
Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients

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Limonene Anxiety 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action

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Linalool Anxiety NA
Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anxiety 300mg
Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life

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Posttraumatic stress disorder 32mg
Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans

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Caryophyllene Depression and anxiety 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice

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Limonene Anxiety 3.4mg/L,
6.7mg/L

Differences in the effects of essential oil from Citrus junos and (+)-limonene on emotional behavior in mice
Linalool Anxiety 0.65% of mixure,
1.25% of mixure,
2.5% of mixure,
5.0% of mixure

Anxiolytic-like effects of inhaled linalool oxide in experimental mouse anxiety models
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Anxiety NA
Expression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anxiety NA
Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Acute psychosocial stress 7.5mg,
12.5mg

Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
Posttraumatic stress disorder NA
Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
(minor) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anxiety 7.5mg,
15mg

Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images
Appetite Stimulant (major) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anorexia NA
Effects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
CBN
(Cannabinol)
Low feeding behaviour NA
Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Cancer 2.5mg
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anorexia NA
Cannabis Use in Epilepsy and Anorexia- Two “N-of-One” Trials (P6.039)
Appetite Loss NA
Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anorexia NA
A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa

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HIV-infected NA
A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
Auto-immunity (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Immune System related diseases 2.5 or 5mg/kg
Cannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
Bone Stimulant
(Enhanced adipogenesis)
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Osteoporosis NA
Regulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
Δ-3-Carene Metabolic bone disorders NA
Low Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Bronchodilating activity (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Asthma 200mg
Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients

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Breathing Difficulties 20mg
Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
Cardiac Proctection (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cardiovascular Complications NA
Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Contractile Activity (cardiac muscle) (moderate) Eucalyptol Myocardial contractility related disorders 0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM

Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
Chemopreventive (major) Geraniol Buccal pouch carcinogenesis 250mg/kg
Chemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
D-Limonene Skin tumorigenesis 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
Cytotoxicity (moderate) Sabinene Macrophages and keratinocytes 29% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
α-Terpineol Breast cancer 5.4μg/mL
The effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Cervical cancer 12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL

Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
(minor) Sabinene HaCaT keratinocytes 26.2% of mixture
Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Gastroprotective (major) Limonene Gastric ulcer 29% of mixture
Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2

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(moderate) Isopulegol Gastric ulcer NA
Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action

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α-Pinene / β-Pinene Gastric ulcer NA
Gastroprotective effect of α-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species

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(minor) α-Bisabolol Gastric ulcer NA
(−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
Healing property (moderate) D-Limonene Chronic ulcers 245mg/kg
Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Immunosuppressive (moderate) CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Human immune diseases NA
A Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Improves behaviour (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
ADHD 71ng/mL
Cannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
Improves recognition of emotion facial (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Multiple sclerosis 2.5–120mg
A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple sclerosis 2.5–120mg
A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Improve neurogenic symptoms (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Facial Emotion Recognition 16mg
Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Facial Emotion Recognition 8mg
Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
Improves Sleep (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Insomnia 25mg,
6 to 12mg

Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Sleep Apnea 20mg
Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
Insect repellent (major) Geraniol Aedes albopictus 0.250μg/cm3
Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Mosquito NA
Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
(moderate) Geraniol Mosquito,
Sand Fly
5% of mixture
Indoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Pediculus humanus humanus NA
Repellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Insecticide (major) Camphor Red imported fire ant (RIFA)
(Solenopsis invicta Buren)
36.61% of mixture
Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
(moderate) Cymene Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults 2% of mixture
Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Pulegone Tribolium castaneum 0.8-26.6% of mixture
Chemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
(minor) Pulegone House fly,
Musca domestica (L.)
69.70% of mixture
Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)

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Larvicidal (moderate) Δ-3-Carene Mosquitoes 12.5% of mixture
δ-Cadinene,Calarene and δ-4-Carene from Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Eucalyptol Adult Aedes aegypti
(yellow fever mosquito)
NA
1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Neuroprotectant (major) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Brain Injury 300mg
Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity

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Caryophyllene Seizures NA
Neuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Cerebral Ischemic Injury 10mg/kg
Protective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Alzheimer’s Disease NA
The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
(moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Alzheimer’s Disease NA
The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
Huntington’s Disease 10mg/kg
Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
Parkinson’s disease 300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial

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Spinal injury 20mg/kg
Cannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Huntington’s Disease NA
VCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease

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CBN
(Cannabinol)
ALS 5mg/kg
Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
D-Limonene Anxiety and pain 15.21% of mixture
Neuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
ADHD NA
Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
ALS NA
The CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
Dementia 3mg
Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
Neurological disorders NA
Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Oxidative Stress NA
Reactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
Traumatic Brain Injury NA
Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
THCA
(Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)
Neurodegeneration 10μM
Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
(minor) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Alzheimer’s Disease 4.5mg
Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial.
Relaxant (moderate) Limonene Sleep deprivation 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Myrcene Sleep deprivation 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Sedative (moderate) Linalool High heart rate and upset mood NA
Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Autonomic nerve activity,mood states NA
Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Skin Repair (major) D-Limonene Dermatitis,
Skin lesion
NA
Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Stimulates neural effects (moderate) THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Obesity 10mg
Neural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
Urinary Protectant (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Multiple sclerosis 2.5mg
An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple sclerosis 2.5mg
An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
Vasorelaxant (moderate) Borneol Tension of the blood vessel walls NA
Investigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Effect Magnitude Cannabinoid/ Terpene Condition Treated Study
Analgesic (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Multiple sclerosis
Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
Caryophyllene Pain
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Pain
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Multiple sclerosis
Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
Anticancer (major) Limonene Cancer
Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
(moderate) CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Cancer
The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cancer
Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
Caryophyllene Cancer
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Cancer
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Antidepressant (minor) CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Depression
Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
Antiepileptic (moderate) CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Epilepsy
Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
Antiemetic (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Emetic
Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials

Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Antiglaucoma (moderate) CBN
(Cannabinol)
Glaucoma
Cannabinoids and glaucoma
Antihypertension (moderate) CBD
(Cannabinol)
Hypertension
Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
Antiinflammatory (major) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Crohn’s disease
Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
Myrcene Inflammation
Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
(moderate) α-Bisabolol Inflammation
A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils
Antiinsomnia (moderate) Borneol Insomnia
Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
Antioxidant (moderate) Caryophyllene oxide Oxidative stress
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Antiprokinetic (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Intestinal prokinetic
Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Antiproliferative (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Cancer
Cannabinoids and Cancer
Antipsoriatic (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Psoriasis
Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Antipsychosis (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Schizophrenia
A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
Antispasmodic (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Spasm and pain
Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
(minor) β-Myrcene Spasm
Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran
Antispasticity (minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Spasticity
Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
Antitumor (major) Geraniol) Tumor
The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)
(moderate) β-Myrcene Cancer
Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
Bone Stimulant (moderate) THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Bone Diseases
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Cerebroprotective (minor) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Chronic Diseases
Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
Cerebroprotective (minor) Eucalyptol Cough
Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var…
Neuroprotective (major) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neurodegenerative Disorders
Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
(moderate) CBN
(Cannabidiol)
ALS
Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Bipolar
Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
(minor) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Migraine
Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
Stimulate Appetite (moderate) THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anorexia
The cancer cachexia syndrome
Stimulate Bone Growth (moderate) CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Bone diseases
Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Bone diseases
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
(minor) CBN
(Cannabidiol)
Bone diseases
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Osteoporosis
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Osteoporosis
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling