Cannabinoids | Terpenes | Conditions | Effects

Cannabis has been shown to have many potential medical applications. The Cannabis Review | Conditions is a collection of scientific studies that identify the molecules, found in cannabis, that treat specific conditions, by what effect, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of molecule used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compound
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the
condition.

major Biological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderate Biological activity has a moderate effect on the condition
minor Biological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of condition treating specific conditions.
Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Condition Treated Cannabinoid/Terpene Effect Amount Used Study Grade
Acne THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Anti-acne(major) NA Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
Acute Lung Injury CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(moderate) 20mg/kg Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory(major) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg
Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Acute Pancreatitis CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(major) 0.5mg/kg Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
Acute Psychosocial Stress THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anxiolytic(moderate) 7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
ADHD THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Improves behaviour(moderate) 71ng/mL Cannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
Neuroprotectant(moderate) NA Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
AD-related Neuroinflammation CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(major) 2.5 or 10mg/kg Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
Adult Aedes Aegypti
(yellow fever mosquito)
Eucalyptol Larvicidal(moderate) NA 1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Aedes albopictus Geraniol Insect repellent
(major)
0.250μg/cm3 Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Airway hypersecretion Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory
(major)
200mg Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Algesic Limonene Analgesic
(moderate)
NA Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
ALS CBN
(Cannabinol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) 5mg/kg Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) NA The CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
Alzheimer’s Disease CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) NA The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotectant(major) NA The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease

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Anorexia CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Appetite Stimulant(major) NA
Effects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

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THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Appetite Stimulant(moderate) NA A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa

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Anxiety CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anxiolytic(major) 600mg
Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients

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Limonene Anxiolytic(major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action

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D-Limonene Neuroprotective(moderate) 15.21% of mixture
Neuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
Linalool Anxiolytic(major) NA
Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

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Antidepressant(moderate) NA
Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Anxiolytic(moderate) NA
Expression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anxiolytic(moderate) NA
Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

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Appetite Loss CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Appetite Stimulant(moderate) NA
Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
Arthritis Camphor Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiarthritic(major) 5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
Asthma Geraniol Antiasthma(major) 100 or 200mg/kg
Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Bronchodilating activity(moderate) 15mg
Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients

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Atherosclerosis Geraniol Antiinflammatory(moderate) 100mg/kg
Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Autonomic nerve activity,
mood states
Linalool Sedative(moderate) NA
Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Bacterial Contamination CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antibacterial(moderate) 50μg/ml
Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol

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Caryophyllene Antibacterial(moderate) 10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

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P-Cymene Antibacterial
(moderate)
0.25–1.25mM
Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Fenchol
(Fenchyl alcohol)
Antibacterial(moderate) NA
Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Geranyl Acetate Antibacterial(major) 7.6% of mixture
Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Humulene Antibacterial(major) 14.21% of mixture
In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Myrcene Antibacterial(major) NA
New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Ocimene Antibacterial(major) 0.03–40.49% of mixture
Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo

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α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antibacterial(major) α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)

Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Brain Injury CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neuroprotectant(major) 300mg
Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity

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Brain tumour Terpinolene Anticancer(moderate) 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Breast Cancer Linalool Anticancer
(moderate)
NA
Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
α-Terpineol Breast cancer
(moderate)
5.4μg/mL
The effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Terpinolene Anticancer
(major)
8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Breathing Difficulties CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antidyspnoea(moderate) 10mg
Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Bronchodilating activity(moderate) 20mg
Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids
Botrytis Cinerea Terpinolene Antifungal(moderate) NA
Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Buccal bacteria α-trans-Bergamotene Antibacterial
(moderate)
29.9% of mixture
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Geraniol Chemopreventive
(major)
250mg/kg
Chemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
Cancer Borneol Anticancer(major) NA
Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage

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CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anticancer(major) NA
The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model

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Antiproliferative(moderate) 1–10μM
Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms

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Antitumor(major) NA
Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer

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CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
Anticancer(moderate) NA
Cannabidiolic acid, a (major) cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Antitumor(major) NA
Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells

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Caryophyllene Anticancer(major) 10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

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Caryophyllene oxide Anticancer(moderate) 17.9% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Humulene Anticancer(major) 32μg/mL
Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Antitumor(moderate) NA
Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
Linalool Antitumor
(moderate)
NA
Linalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Anticancer(major) α-pinene (19.43%),
β-pinene (6.71%)

Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Terpineol Anticancer(moderate) 3 or 6mM
α Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Antiproliferative(moderate) NA
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Cardiovascular Complications CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cardiac Proctection(major) NA
Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Central neuropathic pain CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Analgesic(moderate) 25mg/mL
Oromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Cerebral Ischemic Injury Caryophyllene Neuroprotective(major) 10mg/kg
Protective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes Myrcene Antimutagenic(minor) 1,000μg/ml
Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Cervical cancer α-Terpineol Cytotoxicity(moderate) 12.46μg/mL,
13.12μg/mL

Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
Camphene Anticancer(moderate) NA
The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Chronic Pain CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(minor) 2.5–20mg/kg,
20mg/kg

The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Colitis CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Antiinflammatory(major) NA
The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory(moderate) 200mg/kg,
400mg/kg

1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Colon cancer Linalool Anticancer(moderate) 100μg/kg,
200μg/kg

Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Chronic inflammatory disorders Menthol Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Chronic myelogenus leukemia α-Terpineol Antiproliferative(major) 12.66% of mixture
Phytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
Crohn’s Disease THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiinflammatory(minor) 115mg
Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Cold and mechanical hyperalgesia Phellandrene Antihyperalgesia(moderate) 11mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Dementia THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotective(moderate) 3mg
Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial
Depression CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Antidepressant(major) 20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg

Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antidepressant(moderate) 30mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors

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Camphor Antidepressant(moderate) 4.91% of mixture
An Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
Caryophyllene Anxiolytic(moderate) 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice

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Linalool Antidepressant(moderate) 50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg

Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antidepressant(moderate) NA
Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Dermatitis,
Skin lesion
D-Limonene Skin Repair(major) NA
Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans Sabinene Antifungal(moderate) 29% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Diabetes CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antidiabetic(moderate) 100mg
Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
D-Limonene Antidiabetic(moderate) NA
Protective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Antidiabetic(moderate) 5mg
Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Diabetic Complications CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

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Dystonia CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antidystonic and
Parkinsonism-aggravating(moderate)
100 to 600mg
Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Antidystonic(moderate) 200mg
Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Edema α-Bisabolol Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene

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Δ-3-Carene Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri

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Eucalyptol Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils

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Humulene Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isopulegol Antiinflammatory(major) 22.02% of mixture
In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

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Limonene Antiinflammatory(major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Linalool Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Phytol Antiinflammatory(moderate) 7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Terpineol Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
α-Terpineol Antiinflammatory(major) 6.2% of mixture
Chemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiinflammatory(minor) NA
Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
Emetic activity THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiemetic(major) 5mg,
10mg,
15mg

Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications

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Epilepsy CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiepileptic(moderate) 200-300mg
Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients

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CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anticonvulsant(major) 1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures

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CBDV
(Cannabidivarin)
Anticonvulsant(moderate) NA
Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin

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Linalool Anticonvulsant(moderate) NA
Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Anticonvulsant(moderate) 0.25mg/kg
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Facial Emotion Recognition CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Improves recognition of emotional facial(moderate) 16mg
Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users
Food-related microorganisms D-Limonene Antimicrobial(major) NA
Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antileukemic(major) 200mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Fungal Contamination Borneol Antifungal(major) 36.5% of mixture
Borneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
P-Cymene Antifungal(moderate) 1000ppm
Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague

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D-Limonene Antifungal(minor) 56% of mixture,
57.5% of mixture

Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

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Farnesene Antifungal(major) 14.6–16.4% of mixture
Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Myrcene Antifungal(moderate) 47.7–84.6% of mixture
Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Nerolidol Antifungal(major) NA
Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Ocimene Antifungal(moderate) 30.4% of mixture
Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species

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Phellandrene Antifungal(moderate) 1.7mL/L,
1.8mL/L

Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Sabinene Antifungal(moderate) 31.1% of mixture
In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower

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Gastric ulcer α-Bisabolol Gastroprotective(minor) NA
(−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
Isopulegol Gastroprotective(moderate) NA
Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Limonene Gastroprotective(major) NA
Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Gastroprotective(moderate) NA
Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
Glaucoma CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiglaucoma(minor) 20mg,
40mg

Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Antiglaucoma(moderate) NA
A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiglaucoma(moderate) 2.8% of mixture
Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension

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Glioblastoma multiforme CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anticancer(major) NA
A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anticancer(major) NA
A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Antitumor(moderate) NA
A pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
Glutamate induced pain Linalool Antinociceptive(minor) NA
Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
HaCaT keratinocytes Sabinene Cytotoxicity(minor) 26.2% of mixture
Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Halatosis α-Bisabolol Antimicrobial(minor) NA
The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
Hepatocellular carcinoma Terpineol Anticancer(moderate) 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg

4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
House fly
(Musca domestica L.)
Pulegone Insecticide(minor) 69.70% of mixture
Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)

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High heart rate and upset mood Linalool Sedative(moderate) NA
Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
HIV-infected THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Appetite Stimulant(moderate) NA
A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
Human chronic ulcers D-Limonene Healing property(moderate) 245mg/kg
Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Human immune diseases CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Immunosuppressive(moderate) NA
A Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Huntington’s Disease CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neuroprotective(moderate) 10mg/kg
Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) NA
VCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease

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Hyperalgesia P-Cymene Antihyperalgesic(moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Antiinflammatory(moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Limonene Antihyperalgesic(moderate) 10mg/kg
Limonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Myrcene Analgesic(minor) NA
Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
Hyperlipidemic Camphene Antihyperlipidemic(moderate) 30μg/gr
Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Hyperlocomotion CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antipsychotic(moderate) 15–60mg/kg
Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
Hypernociception Phellandrene Antinociceptive(major) 50mg/kg
Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
Immobility CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antidepressant(moderate) 10–60nmol
Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Limonene Antidepressant(moderate) 10mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Phellandrene Antidepressant(moderate) 10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antidepressant(moderate) 2.5mg/kg
Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.
Immune System related diseases CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Auto-immunity(moderate) 2.5 or 5mg/kg
Cannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
Inflammation α-Bisabolol Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
Borneol Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Analgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Camphene Antinociceptive(major) NA
Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Antiinflammatory(major) 10mg/kg
Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a (major) non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(moderate) 5–40mg/kg
Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa

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Caryophyllene oxide Antiinflammatory(major) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
P-Cymene Antiinflammatory(moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Linalool Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Myrcene Antiinflammatory(moderate) 47.7–84.6% of mixture
Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
α-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Sabinene Antiinflammatory
(major)
29% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Insomnia CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Improve Sleep(moderate) 25mg,
6 to 12mg

Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Intestinal inflammation THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Irritable bowel syndrome CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury THCV
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
Leishmania species Nerolidol Antileishmanial(moderate) 100μM
Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol

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Leukemia α-Terpineol Antiproliferative(minor) NA
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Lipopolysaccharide
induced acute lung injury
Cymene Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Lipopolysaccharide
plus interferon gamma triggered macrophages
Sabinene Antiinflammatory(moderate) 29% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Liver cancer Terpineol Anticancer
(moderate)
320μg/ml
γ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Low feeding behaviour CBN
(Cannabinol)
Appetite Stimulant(minor) NA
Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
LPS-stimulated human macrophages Terpineol-4-ol Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Lung adenocarcinoma β-Myrcene Antitumor(major) 9.29% of mixture
Composition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
Lung cancer Linalool Anticancer
(minor)
NA
A comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Macrophages and keratinocytes Sabinene Cytotoxicity(moderate) 29.% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Malaria Nerolidol Antimalarial(moderate) 1000mg/kg
Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
α-Terpineol Antimalarial(moderate) 22.6% of mixture
Composition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Malassezia furfur Terpinolene Antifungal(major) NA
Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Mechanical hyperalgesia Limonene Antihyperalgesia(moderate) 10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Metabolic bone disorders Δ-3-Carene Bone stimulant(moderate) NA
Low Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Microbiological Contamination Borneol Antimicrobial(moderate) 4.91% of mixture
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Camphene Antimicrobial(moderate) NA
The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Antimicrobial(major) NA
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers

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Caryophyllene Antimicrobial(moderate) 7.8–500lg/mL
Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Caryophyllene oxide Antimicrobial(moderate) 60 to 80μg/ml
Compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Cedrol Antimicrobial(minor) 6.3% of mixture
Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
β-Cedrene Antimicrobial(moderate) 6.1% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
P-Cymene Antimicrobial(major) NA
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)

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Farnesene Antimicrobial(major) 51.5% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Guaiol Antimicrobial(minor) 8,2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

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Isoborneol Antimicrobial(moderate) 14.66% of mixture
Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
D-Limonene Antimicrobial
(moderate)
94% of mixture
Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.
Myrcene Antimicrobial(moderate) NA
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

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α-Pinene / β-Pinene Antimicrobial(major) 10.5% of mixture
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

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Terpineol Antimicrobial(major) NA
Antimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
α-Terpineol Antimicrobial(minor) 13.0% of mixture
Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
Terpinolene Antimicrobial(moderate) 8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Mosquito Eucalyptol Larvicidal(minor) 100mg/L
Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Geraniol Insect repellant(major) NA
Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes

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MRSA CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Antibacterial(moderate) NA
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
CBN
(Cannabinol)
Antibacterial(moderate) NA
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Multiple Sclerosis CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Analgesic(moderate) 2-10inhalations
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis

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Antinociceptive(moderate) NA
Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity(moderate) NA
Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis

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Improve neurogenic symptoms(moderate) 2.5–120mg
A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Urinary Protection(moderate) 2.5mg
An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Analgesic(moderate) NA
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis

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Antiemetic(moderate) 15mg/m2
Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Antinociceptive(moderate) NA
Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity(moderate) 33% of mixture
The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS)

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Antitremor(moderate) NA
Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis
Urinary Protection(moderate) 2.5mg
An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis
Improve neurogenic symptoms(moderate) 2.5–120mg
A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms
Myocardial contractility related disorders Eucalyptol Contractile Activity
(cardiac muscle)(moderate)
0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM

Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
Nausea CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiemetic(moderate) 20mg/kg
Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus

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CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
Antiemetic(moderate) 0.5 mg/kg
Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus

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THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiemetic(moderate) 8.4mg,
16.9mg

Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac

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THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Antinausea(minor) 10mg/kg
Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
Neurodegeneration THCA
(Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)
Neuroprotective(moderate) 10μM
Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
Neuroinflammation CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Antinflammatory(moderate) NA
A Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Neurological disorders THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) NA
Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Neuropathic Pain Linalool Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Analgesic(major) 25mg
Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
Nociception Isopulegol Anotinociceptive(moderate) NA
Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Linalool Antinociceptive(moderate) NA
Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Obesity α-Cedrene Antiobesity(moderate) 10-20mg/kg,
50-100mg/kg

In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Antiobesity(moderate) NA
Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients

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Stimulates neural effects(moderate) 10mg
Neural Effects of Cannabinoid CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Food Reward and Aversion in Healthy Volunteers
Oral mucositis Borneol Antiinflammatory(moderate) 1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture

Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Oral submucous fibrosis Borneol Antifibrosis(moderate) 18.75 to 300μg/ml
Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Osteoarthritis β-Myrcene Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Bone Stimulant(moderate) NA
Regulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
Oxidative-stress related disorders α-trans-Bergamotene Antioxidant(major) 29.9% of mixture
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Antioxidant(moderate) NA
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study.
Caryophyllene Antioxidant(moderate) 10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Caryophyllene oxide Antioxidant(moderate) 17.9% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
β-Cedrene Antioxidant(major) 6.1% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Cymene Antioxidant(moderate) NA
Evaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant
P-Cymene Antioxidant(moderate) NA
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)

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Farnesene Antioxidant(major) 51.5% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Guaiol Antioxidant(moderate) 8,2% of mixture
Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Myrcene Antioxidant(major) 0.01μg/ml
Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells

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Nerolidol Antioxidant(major) NA
Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves

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Sabinene Antioxidant(moderate) 29% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Terpineol Antioxidant(moderate) NA
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
α-Terpineol Antioxidant(major) NA
Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit

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Terpinolene Antioxidant(moderate) 11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells

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THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) NA
Reactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
Antioxidant(minor) NA
Understanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
Pain Borneol Analgesic(major) NA
A clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Analgesic(moderate) NA
An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics

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Camphor Analgesic(moderate) NA
Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism

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Caryophyllene oxide Anesthetic(moderate) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark

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Eucalyptol Analgesic(moderate) NA
Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Linalool Analgesic(moderate) NA
Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice

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THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Analgesic(moderate) NA
An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics

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Antinociceptive(moderate) 1mg/kg,
5mg/kg

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats

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Parkinson’s disease CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) 300mg
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial

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Antidystonic and
Parkinsonism-aggravating(moderate)
100-600mg
Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
Caryophyllene Antioxidant(moderate) 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Antiinflammatory(minor) 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseases CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(major) NA
Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Pediculus humanus humanus Geraniol Insect repellent(moderate) NA
Repellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Periodontal disease β-Caryophyllene Antibacterial(major) NA
Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria Terpineol Antimicrobial(minor) NA
Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
Peripheral pain response CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Analgesic(moderate) NA
(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Phytopathogenic bacteria Camphene Antibacterial(major) 5000 MIC, mg/L
Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Phytopathogenic fungi Camphene Antifungal(major) NA
Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
β-Caryophyllene Antifungal(moderate) 16.98% of mixture
Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd
Cymene Antifungal(moderate) 2% of mixture
Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
P-Cymene Antifungal(major) NA
Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
Pleurisy α-trans-Bergamotene Antiinflammatory(moderate) 7% of mixture
Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
Posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD)
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Anxiolytic(moderate) 32mg
Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans

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THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antidepressant(moderate) 5mg
Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
Anxiolytic(moderate) NA
Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 Phellandrene Antiinflammatory(moderate) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation
Prostate cancer Geraniol Anticancer(major) NA
Geraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Linalool Anticancer
(moderate)
NA
Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Psychotic Experiences CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antipsychotic(minor) NA
Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Red imported fire ant
(Solenopsis invicta Buren)
Camphor Insecticide(major) 36.61% of mixture
Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
Reflexes Linalool Anesthetic(moderate) 0.01 – 10μg/ml
Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Retinal Inflammatory CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Mediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatoid arthritis β-Caryophyllene Antiinflammatory(major) 100mg/kg,
300mg/kg

Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Beta Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Rheumatic Diseases CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
Schizophrenia CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antipsychotic(moderate) 0.3μM,
1μM,
3μM,
10μM,
30μM

Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antipsychotic(moderate) 2.5mg,
5mg

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
Seizures Caryophyllene Anticonvulsant(minor) 100mg/kg
Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Neuroprotective(major) NA
Neuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
Isopulegol Anticonvulsant(major) NA
Effects of isopulegol on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice: possible involvement of GABAergic system and antioxidant activity
Sepsis CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(minor) NA
Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults Cymene Insecticidal(moderate) 2% of mixture
Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Skin tumorigenesis D-Limonene Chemopreventive(major) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

d-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
Sleep Apnea THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Improves sleep(moderate) 20mg
Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers
Sleep deprivation Limonene Relaxant(moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Myrcene Relaxant(moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Spasticity CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antispasticity (minor) NA
Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antispasticity (moderate) 10 or 5mg
Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol

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Spinal injury CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neuroprotectant(moderate) 20mg/kg
Cannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
Stress Guaiol Anesthetic(minor) NA
Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Superficial scald Farnesene Antioxidant(minor) NA
Superficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine
Tension of the blood vessel walls Borneol Vasorelaxant(moderate) NA
Investigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
Thrombosis Borneol Anthrombotic(moderate) NA
The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation D-Limonene Antiinflammatory(major) 10mg/kg
Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Tonic-clonic seizure CBN
(Cannabinol)
Anticonvulsant(moderate) NA
Anticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
Tourette THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antihyperactivity(moderate) NA
Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial

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Traumatic Brain Injury THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotective(moderate) NA
Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury
Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antigastroesophageal reflux(moderate) 20mg
Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans
Tribolium castaneum Pulegone Insecticidal(moderate) 0.8-26.6% of mixture
Chemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
Tumor CBN
(Cannabinol)
Antitumor(moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg

Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
β-Caryophyllene Antitumor(major) NA
β-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
Uveitis CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiinflammatory(major) 5mg/kg
Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
Vomiting THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiemetic(moderate) NA
Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy
Writhe P-Cymene Antinociceptive(major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Limonene Antinociceptive(moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Linalool Antinociception(moderate) 25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg

(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
Terpineol Analgesic(moderate) NA
A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Condition Treated Cannabinoid/ Terpene Effect Study
ALS CBN
(Cannabinol)
Neuroprotective
(moderate)

Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
Anorexia THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Stimulate appetite
(moderate)

The cancer cachexia syndrome
Bipolar THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotective
(moderate)

Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Bone Diseases CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Stimulate Bone Growth
(moderate)

Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
CBN
(Cannabinol)
Stimulate Bone Growth
(minor)

Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Stimulate Bone Growth
(moderate)

Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Bone Stimulant
(moderate)

Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Cancer Caryophyllene Anticancer
(moderate)

β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Anticancer
(moderate)

β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Limonene Anticancer
(major)

Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
β-Myrcene Antitumor
(moderate)

Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiproliferative
(moderate)

Cannabinoids and Cancer
Chronic Diseases CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Cerebroprotective
(minor)

Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
Cough Eucalyptol Cough suppresant
(minor)

Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var
Crohn’s disease THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiinflammatory
(major)

Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
Depression CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Antidepressant
(minor)

Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
Emetic THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antiemetic
(moderate)

Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials

Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Epilepsy CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Antiepileptic
(moderate)

Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
Glaucoma CBN
(Cannabinol)
Antiglaucoma
(moderate)

Cannabinoids and glaucoma
Hypertension CBD
(Cannabinol)
Antihypertension
(moderate)

Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
Inflammation α-Bisabolol Antiinflammatory
(moderate)

A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils
Myrcene Antiinflammatory
(major)

Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
Insomnia Borneol Antiinsomnia
(moderate)

Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
Intestinal prokinetic CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antiprokinetic
(moderate)

Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Migraine THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Neuroprotective
(minor)

Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
Multiple sclerosis CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Analgesic
(moderate)

Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Analgesic
(moderate)

Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis
Neurodegenerative Disorders CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Neuroprotective
(major)

Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
Osteoporosis Disorders CBN
(Cannabidiol)
Stimulate Bone Growth
(minor)

Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Stimulate Bone Growth
(minor)

Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Oxidative stress Caryophyllene oxide Neuroprotective
(moderate)

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Pain Caryophyllene Analgesic
(moderate)

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Analgesic
(moderate)

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Stimulate Bone Growth
(moderate)

Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the endocannabinoid system? A systematic review
Psoriasis CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antipsoriatic
(moderate)

Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Schizophrenia CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antipsychosis
(moderate)

A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
Spasm and pain TCH
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Antispasmodic
(moderate)

Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
Spasm β-Myrcene Antispasm
(minor)

Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran
Spasticity CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Antispasticity
(minor)

Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
Tumor Geraniol Antitumor
(major)

The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)