Terpenes are molecules partially responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. Research shows they also have potential medical benefits. The Cannabis Review | Terpenes is a collection of scientific studies that identifies conditions treated by cannabis-based terpenes, by what mechanism, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of the terpene used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compound
Non-human subject research on multiple cannabis compounds

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the terpenes was treating the
condition.

major Biological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderate Biological activity has an moderate effect on the condition
minor Biological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of terpenes treating specific conditions.
Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Terpenes Also found in Condition Treated Effect Amount used Study Grade
α-Bisabolol Chamomile,
Candeia tree
Edema Antiinflammatory
major
NA Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective
minor
NA (−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
Halatosis Antimicrobial
minor
NA The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
α-trans-Bergamotene Black pepper,
Oils of carrot,
Bergamot,
Lime,
Cottonseed oil
Buccal bacteria Antibacterial
moderate
29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Oxidative stress Antioxidant
major
29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Pleurisy Antiinflammatory
moderate
7% of mixture Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
Borneol Heterotheca, Artemisia, Callicarpa, Dipterocarpaceae, Blumea balsamifera, Kaempferia galanga Cancer Anticancer
major
NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage

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Fungal contamination Antifungal
major
NA Borneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
major
NA Analgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
4.91% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymusvulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Oral mucositis Antiinflammatory
moderate
1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Oral submucous fibrosis Antifibrosis
moderate
18.75 to 300 μg/mL Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Pain Analgesics
major
NA A clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
Tension of the blood vessel walls Vasorelaxant
moderate
NA Investigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
Thrombosis Anthrombotic
moderate
NA The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Camphene Citronella oil, Turpentine, Ginger oil, Campher oil Cervical cancer Anticancer
moderate
NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Hyperlipidemic Antihyperlipidemic
major
30μg/mL Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Inflammation and pain-related processes Antinociceptive
major
NA Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Phytopathogenic bacteria Antibacterial
major
5000 MIC, mg/L Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal
major
NA Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
Camphor Camphor laurel woods,
(Cinnamomum camphora)
Arthritis Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
Depression Antidepressant
moderate
23.77% of mixture An Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
Pain Analgesic
moderate
NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism

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Red imported fire ant (RIFA) Insecticide
major
36.61% of mixture Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
Δ-3-Carene Rosemary,
Cedar,
Pine
Edema Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Edema and subchronic inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA Comparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Mosquitoes Larvicidal
moderate
12.5% of the mixture
δ-Cadinene,Calarene and δ-4-Carene from Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito Larvicidal
moderate
NA Purchase PDF δ-Cadinene,Calarene and δ-4-Carene from Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Metabolic bone disorders Bone stimulant
moderate
NA
Low Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Caryophyllene Hops,
Cloves,
Rosemary,
Basil
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
moderate
10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

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Cancer Anticancer
major
10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

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Cerebral Ischemic Injury Neuroprotective
major
10mg/kg
Protective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Depression and anxiety Anxiolytic
moderate
50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice

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Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
7.8–500 lg/mL
Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant
moderate
10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Parkinson disease Antiinflammatory
minor
50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease Antioxidant
moderate
50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Seizures Anticonvulsant
minor
100mg/kg Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Seizures Neuroprotective
major
NA Neuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
β-Caryophyllene Thai basils,
Cloves,
Black pepper
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
moderate
19.08% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
Periodontal disease Antibacterial
major
NA Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal
moderate
16.98% of mixture Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Antiinflammatory
major
100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of β Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Tumor Antitumor
major
NA β-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
Caryophyllene oxide Oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene Cancer Anticancer
moderate
17.9% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
major
12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Microbiological contaminations Antimicrobial
moderate
60 to 80μg/ml
Compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant
moderate
17.9% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Pain Analgesic
moderate
12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Pain Anesthetic
moderate
56.90% of mixture
Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
α-Cedrene Cedar oil Obesity Antiobesity
moderate
10mg/kg,
20mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
β-Cedrene Cedar oil Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Oxidative stress Antioxidant
major
6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Cedrol Conifer oils
(Cupressus and Juniperus)
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
minor
6.3% of mixture Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Cymene Cumin oil,
Thyme oil
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) Antiinflammatory
major
NA Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal
moderate
2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults Insecticidal
moderate
2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
P-Cymene Cumin oil,
Thyme oil
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
moderate
0.25–1.25mM
Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Fungal contamination Antifungal
moderate
1000ppm
Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague

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Hyperalgesia,
Pleurisy
Antihyperalgesic
moderate
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Hyperalgesia,
Pleurisy
Antiinflammatory
moderate
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Microbiological Contaminants Antimicrobial
major
32.6mg/L
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)

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Oxidative stress Antioxidant
moderate
NA
Evaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant

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Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal
major
NA
Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
Writhe Antinociceptive
major
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Eucalyptol Eucalyptus,
Tea trees,
Bay leaves
Acute lung injury Antiinflammatory
major
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg

Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Adult Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) Larvicida
moderate
NA
1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Airway hypersecretion Antiinflammatory
major
200mg
Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Colitis Antiinflammatory
moderate
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg

1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Edema Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Edema,
Pulmonary inflammation
Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Mosquito larvae Larvicidal
minor
100mg/L
Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Myocardial contractility related disorders Contractile Activity
moderate
0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
Pain Analgesic
moderate
NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Farnesene Apples,
Potatoes,
Aphids,
Perilla oils,
Gardenia scent
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
major
51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Fungal contamination Antifungal
major
14.6–16.4% of mixture Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Oxidative stress Antioxidant
major
51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Superficial scald Antioxidant
minor
NA
Superficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine

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Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol ) Basil Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
moderate
NA Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Geraniol Rose oil, Palmarosa oil, Citronella oil (Java type), Geranium oil, Lemon oil Aedes albopictus Insect repellent
major
0.250μg/cm3
(3 should be superscript)

Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Asthma Antiasthma
major
100 or 200mg/kg
Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Atherosclerosis Antifungal
moderate
100mg/kg
Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Buccal pouch carcinogenesis Chemopreventive
major
250mg/kg
Chemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesispathway
Mosquito Insect repellant
major
NA
Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Mosquito,
Sand Fly
Insect repellant
moderate
5% of mixture
Indoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Pediculus humanus humanus Insect repellant
moderate
NA
Repellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Prostate cancer Anticancer
major
NA Geraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Geranyl Acetate Citronella oil,
Lemongrass oil,
Sassafras oil,
Rose oil
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
major
7.6% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Guaiol Guaiacum oil,
Cypress pine oil
Bacterial contamination Antimicrobial
minor
8.2% of mixture Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

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Oxidative stress Antioxidant
moderate
8.2% of mixture Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Stress Anesthetic
minor
NA Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Humulene Hops plant oil,
Humulus lupulus oil,
Vietnamese coriander
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
major
14.21% of mixture In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Cancer Anticancer
major
32μg/mL Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Antitumor
moderate
NA Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
Edema Antiinflammatory
major
NA Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isoborneol Heterotheca,
Artemisia,
Callicarpa,
Dipterocarpaceae,
Blumea balsamifera,
Kaempferia galanga
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
14.66% of mixture Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Isopulegol Cornmint,
Mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal)
Edema Antiinflammatory
major
22.02% of mixture
In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

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Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective
moderate
NA
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Nociception Anotinociceptive
moderate
NA
Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Seizures Anticonvulsant
major
NA Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Limonene Citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime, and grapefruit) Algesic Analgesic
moderate
NA
Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Anxiety Anxiolytic
major
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action

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Edema Antiinflammatory
major
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective
major
NA
Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its majority compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Hyperalgesia Antihyperalgesia
moderate
10mg/kg
Limonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Immobility Antidepressant
moderate
10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Mechanical hyperalgesia Antihyperanalgesia
moderate
10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Sleep deprivation Relaxant
moderate
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Writhe Antinociceptive
moderate
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
D-Limonene Citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime, and grapefruit) Anxiety and pain Neuroprotective
moderate
15.21% of mixture
Neuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
Chronic ulcers Healing property
moderate
245mg/kg
Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Dermatitis,
Skin lesion
Skin Repair
major
NA
Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Diabetes mellitus Antidiabetic
moderate
NA
Protective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Food-related microorganisms Antimicrobial
major
NA
Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Fungal contamination Antifungal
major
NA
Rapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea

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Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
94% of mixture
Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp
Skin tumorigenesis Chemopreventive
major
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation Antiinflammatory
major
10mg/kg Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Linalool Lavender,
Coriander,
Flowers,
Spices
Anxiety Anxiolytic
major
NA
Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

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Anxiety and depression Antidepressant
moderate
NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Autonomic nerve activity, mood states Sedative
moderate
NA
Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Breast cancer Anticancer
moderate
NA
Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Cancer Antitumor
moderate
NA
Linalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
Colon cancer Anticancer
moderate
100μg/kg,
200μg/kg

Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Depression Antidepressant
moderate
50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg

Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Edema Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Epilepsy Anticonvulsant
moderate
NA
Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
Glutamate induced pain Antinociceptive
minor
NA Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
High heart rate and upset mood Sedative
moderate
NA Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
major
NA Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Lung cancer Anticancer
minor
NA
A comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum majorana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Neuropathic pain Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Nociception Antinociceptive
moderate
NA
Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Pain Analgesic
moderate
NA
Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice

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Prostate cancer Anticancer
moderate
NA
Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Reflexes Anesthetic
moderate
0.01 – 10μg/mL Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Writhe Antinociception
moderate
25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg

(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
Menthol Peppermint, Eucalyptus, Pennyroyal Chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitis Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Myrcene Mangoes,
Hops,
Bay laurel leaves,
Thyme,
Lemongrass,
Basil
Bacterial Contamination Antibacterial
major
NA
New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes Antimutagenic
minor
1,000μg/mL Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Fungal contamination Antifungal
moderate
47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Hyperalgesia Analgesic
minor
NA Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
NA Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

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Oxidative stress Antioxidant
major
0.01μg/ml
Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells

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Sleep deprivation Relaxant
moderate
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
β-Myrcene Fresh mangoes, Hops, Bay leaves, Eucalyptus, Lemon grass Lung adenocarcinoma Antitumor
major
9.29% of mixture Composition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
Osteoarthritis Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
Nerolidol Ginger,
Niaouli,
Citronella
Fungal contamination Antifungal
major
NA Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Leishmania species Antileishmanial
moderate
100μM Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Leishmaniasis Antileishmanial
moderate
NA
Antileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
Malaria Antimalarial
moderate
1000mg/kg
Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
Oxidative stress Antioxidant
major
NA
Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves

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Ocimene Basil,
Parsley,
Mint
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
major
0.03–40.49% of mixture
Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo

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Fungal contamination Antifungal
moderate
30.4% of mixture
Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species

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Phellandrene Eucalyptus Cold and mechanical hyperalgesia Antihyperanalgesia
moderate
11mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Fungal contamination Antifungal
moderate
1.7mg/L,
1.8mg/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Hypernociception Antinociceptive
major
50mg/kg Antinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action
Immobility Antidepressant
moderate
10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 Antiinflammatory
moderate
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Phytol Green tea Edema Antiinflammatory
moderate
7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
α Pinene / β Pinene Orange peels,
Pine needles,
Basil,
Parsley,
Rosemary,
Dill,
Conifer trees
Anxiety Anxiolytic
moderate
NA Expression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial
major
19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Cancer Anticancer
major
19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Depression Antidepressant
moderate
NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective
moderate
NA Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA α-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
major
10.5% of mixture
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

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Pulegone Mint,
Camphor,
Rosemary,
Candy
Tribolium castaneum Insecticidal
moderate
0.8-26.6% of mixture
Chemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
House fly,
Musca domestica (L.)
Insecticidal
minor
69.70% of mixture
Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)

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Sabinene Oak,
Black pepper,
Tea tree oil,
Carrot seed oil
Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans Antifungal
moderate
29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Fungal contamination Antifungal
moderate
31.1% of mixture
In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower

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HaCaT keratinocytes Cytotoxicity
minor
29.% of mixture
Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
minor
29.% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-triggered macrophages Antiinflammatory
moderate
29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Macrophages and keratinocytes Cytotoxicity
moderate
29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Oxidative stress Antioxidant
moderate
29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Terpineol Cancer Antiproliferative
moderate
NA Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Cancer Anticancer
moderate
3mM,
6mM
α Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Edema Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Hepatocellular carcinoma Anticancer
moderate
10mg/kg,
20mg/kg

4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
Liver cancer Anticancer
moderate
320μg/ml
γ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
major
NA
Antimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant
moderate
NA
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria Antimicrobial
minor
NA
Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
Writhe Analgesic
moderate
NA
A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
α-Terpineol Pine smoke used to dry the tea Breast cancer Cytotoxicity
moderate
5.4μg/mL
The effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Cervical cancer Cytotoxicity
moderate
22.6% of mixture
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
Edema Antiinflammatory
major
6.2% of mixture
Chemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
Chronic myelogenus leukemia Antiproliferative
major
12.66% of mixture
Phytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
Malaria Antimalarial
moderate
22.6% of mixture
Composition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
minor
13.0% of mixture
Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant
major
NA
Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit

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Leukemia Antiproliferative
minor
NA
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Terpineol-4-ol Cajuput oil,
Pine oil,
Petitgrain oil
LPS-stimulated human macrophages Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Terpinolene Oregano,
Marjoram,
Cumin,
Lilac,
Some citrus rind,
Conifers
Botrytis cinerea Antifungal
moderate
NA
Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Brain tumour Anticancer
moderate
10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Breast tumor,
prostate carcinoma
Anticancer
major
8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Malassezia furfur Antifungal
major
NA
Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
moderate
8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Oxidative stress Antioxidant
moderate
11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells

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Valencene Valencia oranges Ingredient used in food and drink, personal care and household products. Addetive Ingredient
moderate
NA Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Terpene Condition Treated Effect Study
α-Bisabolol Inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils
Borneol Insomnia Anti-insomnia
moderate

Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
Caryophyllene Cancer Anticancer
moderate

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Pain Analgesic
moderate

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Cancer Anticancer
moderate

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Oxidative stress Antioxidant
moderate

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Pain Analgesic
moderate

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Eucalyptol Cough Cough suppresant
minor
Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var…
Geraniol Tumor Antitumor
major
The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)
Limonene Cancer Anticancer
major
Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
Myrcene Inflammation Antiinflammatory
major
Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
Beta-Myrcene Cancer Antitumor
moderate
Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
Spasm Antispasm
minor
Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran