Terpenes are molecules partially responsible for the aroma and taste of cannabis. They are naturally present in a number of fruits, spices, herbs and other vegetation, and research shows they have many potential medical applications.The Cannabis Review | Terpenes is a collection of scientific studies that identify conditions treated by terpenes, by what mechanism, the magnitude of that effect, and the amount of the terpene used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compound
Non-human subject research on cannabis compound in a mixture

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the terpene was in treating the
condition.

major Biological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderate Biological activity has an moderate effect on the condition
minor Biological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of terpenes treating specific conditions.
Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Terpenes Condition Treated Effect Amount used Study Grade
α-Bisabolol

(Also found in chamomile & candeia tree)
Edema
(inflammation)
Antiinflammatory(major) NA Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (−)-α-bisabolol in rodents
Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective(minor) NA (−)-α-Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection is associated with reduction in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and neutrophil migration
Halatosis Antimicrobial(minor) NA The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis
Inflammation Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages
α-trans-Bergamotene

(Also found in black pepper, oils of carrot, bergamot, lime & cottonseed oil)
Buccal bacteria Antibacterial(moderate) 29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Oxidative stress Antioxidant(major) 29.9% of mixture Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae)
Pleurisy Antiinflammatory(moderate) 7% of mixture Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats
Borneol

(Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera & kaempferia galanga)
Cancer Anticancer(major) NA Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage

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Fungal contamination Antifungal(major) NA Borneol-grafted cellulose for antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition
Inflammation Antiinflammatory(major) NA Analgesic and Anti-inflammation Effect of Borneol
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) 4.91% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thyme (Thymusvulgaris) from Eastern Morocco
Oral mucositis Antiinflammatory(moderate) 1.2% of mixture,
2.4% of mixture
Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Oral submucous fibrosis Antifibrosis(moderate) 18.75 to 300 μg/mL Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis
Pain Analgesics(major) NA A clinical and mechanistic study of topical borneol‐induced analgesia
Tension of the blood vessel walls Vasorelaxant(moderate) NA Investigation of Mechanisms Involved in (−)-Borneol-Induced Vasorelaxant Response on Rat Thoracic Aorta
Thrombosis Anthrombotic(moderate) NA The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol Related to Its Anticoagulant Property
Camphene

(Also found in citronella oil, turpentine, ginger oil & campher oil)
Cervical cancer Anticancer(moderate) NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Hyperlipidemic Antihyperlipidemic(major) 30μg/mL Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity
Inflammation and pain-related processes Antinociceptive(major) NA Antinociceptive Activity and Redox Profile of the Monoterpenes (+)-Camphene, p-Cymene, and Geranyl Acetate in Experimental Models
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) NA The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia
Phytopathogenic bacteria Antibacterial(major) 5000 MIC, mg/L Evaluation of antibacterial properties and biochemical effects of monoterpenes on plant pathogenic bacteria
Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal(major) NA Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in nort
Camphor

(Also found in camphor laurel woods, (Cinnamomum camphora))
Arthritis Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA Study on antiinflammatory effect of different chemotype of Cinnamomum camphora on rat arthritis model induced by Freund’s adjuvant
Depression Antidepressant(moderate) 23.77% of mixture An Investigation of Anti-Depressant Activity of Cinnamomum Camphora Oil in Experimental Mice
Pain Analgesic(moderate) NA Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism

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Red imported fire ant (RIFA) Insecticide(major) 36.61% of mixture Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)
Δ-3-Carene

(Also found in rosemary, cedar & pine)
Edema Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri
Edema and subchronic inflammation Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA Comparative study of different essential oils of Bupleurum gibraltaricum Lamarck
Mosquitoes Larvicidal(moderate) 12.5% of the mixture
δ-Cadinene,Calarene and δ-4-Carene from Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito Larvicidal(moderate) NA Purchase PDF δ-Cadinene,Calarene and δ-4-Carene from Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes
Metabolic bone disorders Bone stimulant(moderate) NA
Low Concentration of 3-Carene Stimulates theDifferentiation of Mouse Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4 Cells
Caryophyllene

(Also found in hops, cloves, rosemary & basil)
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(moderate) 10.54% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

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Cancer Anticancer(major) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

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Cerebral Ischemic Injury Neuroprotective(major) 10mg/kg
Protective Effect of β-Caryophyllene, a Natural Bicyclic Sesquiterpene, Against Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Depression and anxiety Anxiolytic(moderate) 50mg/kg β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice

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Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) 7.8–500 lg/mL
Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant(moderate) 10.54% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Parkinson disease Antiinflammatory(minor) 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease Antioxidant(moderate) 50mg/kg
β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease
Seizures Anticonvulsant(minor) 100mg/kg Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures
Seizures Neuroprotective(major) NA Neuroprotective Effects of Trans-Caryophyllene Against Kainic Acid Induced Seizure Activity and Oxidative Stress in Mice
β-Caryophyllene

(Also found in thai basils, cloves & black pepper)
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(moderate) 19.08% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Centella asiatica. Growing in South Africa
Periodontal disease Antibacterial(major) NA Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs
Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal(moderate) 16.98% of mixture Chemical composition and antifungal properties of the essential oil and various extracts of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Antiinflammatory(major) 100mg/kg,
300mg/kg
Anti-Arthritic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of β Caryophyllene against Freund’s Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats
Tumor Antitumor(major) NA β-Caryophyllene potently inhibits solid tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in high-fat diet–induced obese C57BL/6N mice
Caryophyllene oxide

(Also found in oxdiation product of β-Caryophyllene)
Cancer Anticancer(moderate) 17.9% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Inflammation Antiinflammatory(major) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Microbiological contaminations Antimicrobial(moderate) 60 to 80μg/ml
Compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of two Hypericum species from Turkey
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant(moderate) 17.9% of mixture
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso
Pain Analgesic(moderate) 12.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark
Pain Anesthetic(moderate) 56.90% of mixture
Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
α-Cedrene

(Also found in cedar oil)
Obesity Antiobesity(moderate) 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg
In vivo absorption and disposition of α-cedrene, a sesquiterpene constituent of cedarwood oil, in female and male rats
β-Cedrene

(Also found in cedar oil)
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) 6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Oxidative stress Antioxidant(major) 6.1% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Cedrol

(Also found in conifer oils
(Cupressus and Juniperus))
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(minor) 6.3% of mixture Volatile constituents of propolis from various regions of Greece–Antimicrobial activity
Cymene

(Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) Antiinflammatory(major) NA Protective effect of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice
Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal(moderate) 2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults Insecticidal(moderate) 2% of mixture Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene
P-Cymene

(Also found in cumin oil & thyme oil)
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(moderate) 0.25–1.25mM
Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice
Fungal contamination Antifungal(moderate) 1000ppm
Studies on Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague

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Hyperalgesia,
Pleurisy
Antihyperalgesic(moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Hyperalgesia,
Pleurisy
Antiinflammatory (moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

The anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene: Evidence for the involvement of opioid system and cytokines
Inflammation Antiinflammatory (moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Microbiological Contaminants Antimicrobial(major) 32.6mg/L
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Thymus pectinatus Fisch. et Mey. Var. pectinatus (Lamiaceae)

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Oxidative stress Antioxidant(moderate) NA
Evaluation of p-cymene, a natural antioxidant

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Phytopathogenic fungi Antifungal(major) NA
Antifungal Effects of Volatile Compounds from Black Zira (Bunium persicum) and Other Spices and Herbs
Writhe Antinociceptive(major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Properties of p-Cymene in Mice
Eucalyptol

(Also found in eucalyptus, tea trees & bay leaves)
Acute lung injury Antiinflammatory(major) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
400mg/kg

Eucalyptol suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B pathway to exert anti-inflammatory effects in an acute lung inflammation model
Adult Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) Larvicida(moderate) NA
1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol), a mosquito feeding and ovipositional repellent from volatile oil ofHemizonia fitchii (Asteraceae)
Airway hypersecretion Antiinflammatory(major) 200mg
Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Colitis Antiinflammatory(moderate) 200mg/kg,
400mg/kg

1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), a monoterpene oxide attenuates the colonic damage in rats on acute TNBS-colitis
Edema Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Edema,
Pulmonary inflammation
Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol
Mosquito larvae Larvicidal(minor) 100mg/L
Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their (major) components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Myocardial contractility related disorders Contractile Activity(moderate) 0.01mM,
0.05mM,
0.1mM,
0.5mM
Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle
Pain Analgesic(moderate) NA Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils
Farnesene

(Also found in apples, potatoes, aphids, perilla oils & gardenia scent)
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(major) 51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Fungal contamination Antifungal(major) 14.6–16.4% of mixture Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils from Leaves and Flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. From Cameroon
Oxidative stress Antioxidant(major) 51.5% of mixture Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Acacia mollissima and Acacia cyclops Cultivated in Tunisia
Superficial scald Antioxidant(minor) NA
Superficial scald, a functional disorder of stored apples. V.—Oxidation of α-farnesene and its inhibition by diphenylamine

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Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol)

(Also found in basil)
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(moderate) NA Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes
Geraniol

(Also found in rose oil, palmarosa oil, citronella oil (Java type), geranium oil & lemon oil)
Aedes albopictus Insect repellent(major) 0.250μg/cm3
(3 should be superscript)

Host-Seeking and Blood-Feeding Behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Exposed to Vapors of Geraniol, Citral, Citronellal, Eugenol, or Anisaldehyde
Asthma Antiasthma(major) 100 or 200mg/kg
Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice
Atherosclerosis Antifungal(moderate) 100mg/kg
Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway
Buccal pouch carcinogenesis Chemopreventive(major) 250mg/kg
Chemopreventive efficacy of geraniol against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesispathway
Mosquito Insect repellant(major) NA
Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes
Mosquito,
Sand Fly
Insect repellant(moderate) 5% of mixture
Indoor Protection Against Mosquito and Sand Fly Bites: A Comparison Between Citronella, Linalool, and Geraniol Candles
Pediculus humanus humanus Insect repellant(moderate) NA
Repellency of essential oils and their components to the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus
Prostate cancer Anticancer(major) NA Geraniol induces cooperative interaction of apoptosis and autophagy to elicit cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells
Geranyl Acetate

(Also found in citronella oil, lemongrass oil, sassafras oil, rose oil)
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(major) 7.6% of mixture Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Properties of Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaoubardii Oils: Three Chemotypes in the Same Population
Guaiol

(Also found in guaiacum oil & cypress pine oil)
Bacterial contamination Antimicrobial(minor) 8.2% of mixture Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

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Oxidative stress Antioxidant(moderate) 8.2% of mixture Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark
Stress Anesthetic(minor) NA Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen
Humulene

(Also found in hops plant oil, humulus lupulus oil & vietnamese coriander)
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(major) 14.21% of mixture In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn
Cancer Anticancer(major) 32μg/mL Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel
Antitumor(moderate) NA Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action
Edema Antiinflammatory(major) NA Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea
Isoborneol

(Also found in heterotheca, artemisia, callicarpa, dipterocarpaceae, blumea balsamifera, kaempferia galanga)
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) 14.66% of mixture Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action
Isopulegol

(Also found in cornmint & mentha pulegium (European pennyroyal))
Edema Antiinflammatory(major) 22.02% of mixture
In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

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Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective(moderate) NA
Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action
Nociception Anotinociceptive(moderate) NA
Anotinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Isopulegol and possible mechanisms of action in rodents
Seizures Anticonvulsant(major) NA Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Limonene

(Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit)
Algesic Analgesic(moderate) NA
Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene
Anxiety Anxiolytic(major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action

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Edema Antiinflammatory(major) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective(major) NA
Gastroprotective mechanisms of Citrus lemon (Rutaceae) essential oil and its (major)ity compounds limonene and β-pinene: Involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2
Hyperalgesia Antihyperalgesia(moderate) 10mg/kg
Limonene modulates the hyperalgesia and depressive-like behaviour through IL-1 and NFB regulation in mice
Immobility Antidepressant(moderate) 10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Mechanical hyperalgesia Antihyperanalgesia(moderate) 10mg/kg
Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Sleep deprivation Relaxant(moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg

Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
Writhe Antinociceptive(moderate) 25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
D-Limonene

(Also found in citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime & grapefruit))
Anxiety and pain Neuroprotective(moderate) 15.21% of mixture
Neuropharmacological activities of phytoncide released from Cryptomeria japonica
Chronic ulcers Healing property(moderate) 245mg/kg
Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation
Dermatitis,
Skin lesion
Skin Repair(major) NA
Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene and Perillyl Alcohol in Murine Models
Diabetes mellitus Antidiabetic(moderate) NA
Protective Effects of d-Limonene on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Food-related microorganisms Antimicrobial(major) NA
Effects of nisin on the antimicrobial activity of d-limonene and its nanoemulsion
Fungal contamination Antifungal(major) NA
Rapid Evaluation of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils for Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis cinerea

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Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) 94% of mixture
Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp
Skin tumorigenesis Chemopreventive(major) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg

D-Limonene modulates inflammation, oxidative stress and Ras-ERK pathway to inhibit murine skin tumorigenesis
TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation Antiinflammatory(major) 10mg/kg Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans
Linalool

(Also found in lavender, coriander, flowers & spices)
Anxiety Anxiolytic(major) NA
Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

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Anxiety and depression Antidepressant(moderate) NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Autonomic nerve activity, mood states Sedative(moderate) NA
Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Breast cancer Anticancer(moderate) NA
Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Cancer Antitumor(moderate) NA
Linalool Exhibits Cytotoxic Effects by Activating Antitumor Immunity
Colon cancer Anticancer(moderate) 100μg/kg,
200μg/kg

Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer
Depression Antidepressant(moderate) 50mg/kg,
160mg/kg,
500mg/kg

Subchronic Administration of Linalool Decreases Depressive-Like Behaviour in Restrained Rats
Edema Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2
Epilepsy Anticonvulsant(moderate) NA
Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models
Glutamate induced pain Antinociceptive(minor) NA Evidence for the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool in mice
High heart rate and upset mood Sedative(moderate) NA Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its (major) odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states
Inflammation Antiinflammatory(major) NA Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model
Lung cancer Anticancer(minor) NA
A comparative study of cytotoxic, membrane and DNA damaging effects of Origanum (major)ana’s essential oil and its oxygenated monoterpene component linalool on parental and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cells
Neuropathic pain Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA
(–)‐Linalool Attenuates Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spinal Nerve Ligation in C57/Bl6 Mice
Nociception Antinociceptive (moderate) NA
Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism
Pain Analgesic(moderate) NA
Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice

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Prostate cancer Anticancer(moderate) NA
Anticancer Activity of Linalool Terpenoid: Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Arrest in Prostate Cancer Cells
Reflexes Anesthetic(moderate) 0.01 – 10μg/mL Local Anaesthetic Activity of the Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia
Writhe Antinociception(moderate) 25mg/kg,
75mg/kg,
100mg/kg

(−)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain
Menthol

(Also found in peppermint, eucalyptus & pennyroyal
Chronic inflammatory disorders such as bronchial asthma, colitis and allergic rhinitis Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases
Myrcene

(Also found in mangoes, hops, bay laurel leaves, thyme, lemongrass & basil
Bacterial Contamination Antibacterial(major) NA
New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components
Certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes Antimutagenic(minor) 1,000μg/mL Evaluation of the mutagenicity of β-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro
Fungal contamination Antifungal(moderate) 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Hyperalgesia Analgesic(minor) NA Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea
Inflammation Antiinflammatory(moderate) 47.7–84.6% of mixture Essential oils from Distichoselinum tenuifolium: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) NA Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

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Oxidative stress Antioxidant(major) 0.01μg/ml
Protective effect of linalool, myrcene and eucalyptol against t-butyl hydroperoxide induced genotoxicity in bacteria and cultured human cells

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Sleep deprivation Relaxant(moderate) 100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Central effects of citral, myrcene and limonene, constituents of essential oil chemotypes from Lippia alba (Mill.) n.e. Brown
β-Myrcene

(Also found in fresh mangoes, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus & lemon grass)
Lung adenocarcinoma Antitumor(major) 9.29% of mixture Composition and antitumor activities of essential oil from the fruits of Dasymaschalon trichophorum
Osteoarthritis Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis
Nerolidol

(Also found in ginger, niaouli & citronella)
Fungal contamination Antifungal(major) NA Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol
Leishmania species Antileishmanial(moderate) 100μM Antileishmanial Activity of the Terpene Nerolidol
Leishmaniasis Antileishmanial(moderate) NA
Antileishmanial activity of nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum
Malaria Antimalarial(moderate) 1000mg/kg
Antimalarial activity of the terpene nerolidol
Oxidative stress Antioxidant(major) NA
Antioxidant evaluation of polyhydroxylated nerolidols from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves

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Ocimene

(Also found in basil, parsley & mint
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(major) 0.03–40.49% of mixture
Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo

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Fungal contamination Antifungal(moderate) 30.4% of mixture
Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica (major) against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species

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Phellandrene

(Also found in eucalyptus)
Cold and mechanical hyperalgesia Antihyperanalgesia(moderate) 11mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
Fungal contamination Antifungal(moderate) 1.7mg/L,
1.8mg/L
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium
Hypernociception Antinociceptive(major) 50mg/kg Antinociceptive activity of the monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: possible mechanisms of action
Immobility Antidepressant(moderate) 10mg/kg Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model
pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 Antiinflammatory(moderate) 50mg/kg,
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
Phytol

(Also found in green tea)
Edema Antiinflammatory(moderate) 7.5mg/kg,
25mg/kg,
50mg/kg,
75mg/kg
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress
α Pinene / β Pinene

(Also found in orange peels, pine needles, basil, parsley, rosemary, dill & conifer trees)
Anxiety Anxiolytic(moderate) NA Expression of BDNF and TH mRNA in the Brain Following Inhaled Administration of α-Pinene
Bacterial contamination Antibacterial(major) 19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Cancer Anticancer(major) 19.43% of mixture,
6.71% of mixture
Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Depression Antidepressant(moderate) NA Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway
Gastric ulcer Gastroprotective(moderate) NA Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species
Inflammation Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA α-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(major) 10.5% of mixture
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

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Pulegone

(Also found in mint, camphor, rosemary & candy)
Tribolium castaneum Insecticidal(moderate) 0.8-26.6% of mixture
Chemical characterization and insecticidal properties of essential oils from different wild populations of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija (Briq.) Harley from Morocco
House fly,
Musca domestica (L.)
Insecticidal(minor) 69.70% of mixture
Insecticidal activity of essential oils from native medicinal plants of Central Argentina against the house fly, Musca domestica (L.)

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Sabinene

(Also found in oak, black pepper, tea tree oil & carrot seed oil)
Dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans Antifungal(moderate) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Fungal contamination Antifungal(moderate) 31.1% of mixture
In Vivo Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum gibraltarium against Plasmopara halstedii in Sunflower

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HaCaT keratinocytes Cytotoxicity(minor) 29.% of mixture
Essential Oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical Composition, Antifungal Activity and Cytotoxicity
Inflammation Antiinflammatory(minor) 29.% of mixture
Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-triggered macrophages Antiinflammatory(moderate) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Macrophages and keratinocytes Cytotoxicity(moderate) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Oxidative stress Antioxidant(moderate) 29.% of mixture Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil
Terpineol

Cancer Antiproliferative(moderate) NA Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Cancer Anticancer(moderate) 3mM,
6mM
α Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling
Edema Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
Hepatocellular carcinoma Anticancer(moderate) 10mg/kg,
20mg/kg

4-Terpineol exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects in Hep-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing cell migration and inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 cell cycle arrest
Liver cancer Anticancer(moderate) 320μg/ml
γ-terpineol inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells in vitro
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(major) NA
Antimicrobial effect of vapours of terpineol, (R)-(–)-linalool, carvacrol, (S)-(–)-perillaldehyde and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes using a room diffuser
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant(moderate) NA
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors
Periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria Antimicrobial(minor) NA
Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria
Writhe Analgesic(moderate) NA
A Study on Anti-Inflammatory and Peripheral Analgesic Action of Salvia sclarea Oil and Its Main Components
α-Terpineol

(Also found in pine smoke used to dry the tea)
Breast cancer Cytotoxicity(moderate) 5.4μg/mL
The effect of a-terpineol on cell cycle, apoptosis and Bcl-2 family protein expression of breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Cervical cancer Cytotoxicity(moderate) 22.6% of mixture
Cytotoxicity of α-terpineol in HeLa cell line and its effects to apoptosis and cell cycle
Edema Antiinflammatory(major) 6.2% of mixture
Chemical constituents and antiinflammatory activity of leaf essential oil of Nigerian grown Chenopodium album L.
Chronic myelogenus leukemia Antiproliferative(major) 12.66% of mixture
Phytochemical analysis, antiproliferative against k562 humam chronic myelogenus leukemia, antiviral and hypoglycaemic activities of cedrus species and medicinal plants native from Libanon
Malaria Antimalarial(moderate) 22.6% of mixture
Composition and antimalarial activity in vitro of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(minor) 13.0% of mixture
Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Samples of Thyme and Marjoram Oils
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant(major) NA
Influence of the cultivation system in the aroma of the volatile compounds and total antioxidant activity of passion fruit

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Leukemia Antiproliferative(minor) NA
Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils of some wild Portuguese Thymus
Terpineol-4-o

(Also found in cajuput oil, pine oil & petitgrain oil)
LPS-stimulated human macrophages Antiinflammatory(moderate) NA Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
Terpinolene

(Also found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind & conifers)
Botrytis cinerea Antifungal(moderate) NA
Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea
Brain tumour Anticancer(moderate) 10mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells
Breast tumor,
prostate carcinoma
Anticancer(major) 8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Malassezia furfur Antifungal(major) NA
Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial(moderate) 8.4% of mixture
Essential oil constituents, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves
Oxidative stress Antioxidant(moderate) 11mg/L,
25mg/L,
50mg/L,
100mg/L,
200mg/L,
400mg/L

Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties of Terpinolene in Rat Brain Cells

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Valencene

(Also found in valencia oranges)
Ingredient used in food and drink, personal care and household products. Addetive Ingredient(moderate) NA Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene

Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Terpene Condition Treated Effect Study
α-Bisabolol Inflammation Antiinflammatory(moderate) A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of α-Bisabolol and α-Bisabolol-Rich Oils
Borneol Insomnia Anti-insomnia(moderate)
Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence
Caryophyllene Cancer Anticancer(moderate)
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Pain Analgesic(moderate)
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Caryophyllene oxide Cancer Anticancer(moderate)
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Oxidative stress Antioxidant(moderate)
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Pain Analgesic(moderate)
β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties
Eucalyptol Cough Cough suppresant(minor) Survey of the bioactive and fragrant constituents separated by nano scale injection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Var…
Geraniol Tumor Antitumor(major) The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review)
Limonene Cancer Anticancer(major) Cancer chemoprevention and therapy by monoterpenes
Myrcene Inflammation Antiinflammatory(major) Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain
Beta-Myrcene Cancer Antitumor(moderate) Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils
Spasm Antispasm(minor) Essential oil composition of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) leaves cultivated in Mazandaran, Iran