Cannabinoids are a group of naturally occurring molecules found in cannabis that are linked to a number of medical benefits and treatments. The Cannabis Review | Cannabinoids is a collection of scientific studies that identify the conditions various cannabinoids treat, by what mechanism, the magnitude of the effect, and the amount of the cannabinoid used in the study.

Grade

This is the measurement of the nature and methodology of the scientific study.

Double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study
Open clinical trial study; no control group and no blinded clinical trial
Non-human subject research on isolated cannabis compounds
Non-human subject research on multiple cannabis compounds

Magnitude of Effect

This identifies how effective the biological activity of the cannabinoid was treating the
condition.

major Biological activity has a major effect on the condition
moderate Biological activity has an moderate effect on the condition
minor Biological activity has a minor effect on the condition

Primary Studies

The following are scientific studies that have shown the effectiveness of cannabinoids treating specific conditions.
Study names are linked to the studies, click to view.

Cannabinoid Condition Treated Effect Amount Used Study Grade
CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Colitis Antiinflammatory
major
NA The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis
Depression Antidepressant
major
20mg/kg,
40mg/kg,
80mg/kg

Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
Edema Antiinflammatory
major
NA
Anti-inflammatory properties of cannabichromene

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Inflammation-induced hypermotility Antiinflammatory
major
10mg/kg
Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice
Microbiological contamination Antimicrobial
major
NA
Biological Activity of Cannabichromene, its Homologs and Isomers

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CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Acute lung injury Antiinflammatory
moderate
20mg/kg
Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: Role for the adenosine A2A receptor
Acute Pancreatitis Antiinflammatory
major
0.5mg/kg
Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice
AD-related neuroinflammation Antiinflammatory
major
2.5 or 10mg/kg
Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression
Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotectant
moderate
NA
The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits β-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells
Anorexia Appetite Stimulant
major
NA
Effects of Dronabinol on Anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

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Anxiety Anxiolytic
major
600mg
Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients

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Arthritis Antiarthritic
major
5 mg/kg per day, 25 mg/kg per day orally
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.
Bacterial Strains Antibacterial
moderate
50μg/ml
Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol

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Brain Injury Neuroprotectant
major
300mg
Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity

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Cancer Antitumor
major
NA
Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma

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Cancer Anticancer
major
NA
The Combination of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Radiation in an Orthotopic Murine Glioma Model

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Cancer(Prostate Carcinoma) Antiproliferative
moderate
1–10µM
Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms

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Cardiovascular Complications Cardiac Proctection
major
NA
Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Central Neuropathic Pain Analgesic
moderate
25mg/mL
Oromucosal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: An uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial
Chronic Pain Antiinflammatory
minor
2.5–20mg/kg to neuropathic rats
20mg/kg to adjuvant-injected rats

The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Depression Antidepressant
moderate
15mg/kg,
30mg/kg,
45mg/kg

Prohedonic Effect of Cannabidiol in a Rat Model of Depression

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Diabetic Complications Antiinflammatory
major
NA
Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption

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Epilepsy Anticonvulsant
major
1mg/kg,
10mg/kg,
100mg/kg

Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures

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Glioblastoma multiforme Anticancer
major
NA
A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Hyperlocomotion Antipsychotic
moderate
15–60mg/kg
Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice
Immobility Antidepressant
moderate
10–60nmol/side
Antidepressant-like effect of cannabidiol injection into the ventral medial prefrontal cortex—Possible involvement of 5-HT1A and CB1 receptors
Immune System related diseases Auto-immunity
moderate
2.5 or 5mg/kg/day
Cannabidiol-induced Lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK Cells
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
5–40mg/kg
Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw
Insomnia Improve Sleep
moderate
25mg supplement,
6mg to 12mg spray

Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Nausea Antiemetic
moderate
200mg/kg
Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus

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Neuroinflammatory diseases Antiinflammatory
minor
NA
Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol – studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells
Osteoporosis Bone Stimulant
moderate
NA
Regulation of bone by cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors
Parkinson’s Disease Neuroprotectant
moderate
300mg/day
Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial
Pathological memory T cells and in Autoimmune diseases Antiinflammatory
major
NA
Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells
Peripheral pain response Analgesic
moderate
NA
(+)-Cannabidiol analogues which bind cannabinoid receptors but exert peripheral activity only
Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) Anxiolytic
moderate
NA
Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors
Psychotic Experiences Antipsychotic
minor
NA
Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences
Retinal Inflammatory Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
Mediation of Cannabidiol Anti-inflammation in the Retina by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter and A2A Adenosine Receptor
Rheumatic Diseases Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model
Sepsis Antiinflammatory
minor
NA
Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB1 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase
Spasticity Antispasticity
minor
NA
Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Spinal Injury Neuroprotectant
moderate
20mg/kg
Cannabidiol-treated Rats Exhibited Higher Motor Score After Cryogenic Spinal Cord Injury
Uveitis Antiinflammatory
major
5mg/kg
Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation
CBDA
(Cannabidiolic acid)
Cancer Anticancer
moderate
NA
Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
minor
2μM
Cannabidiolic Acid as a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitory Component in Cannabis
Nausea Antiemetic
moderate
0.5mg/kg
Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation

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CBDV
(Cannabidivarin)
Epilepsy Anticonvulsant
moderate
NA
Cannabis in epilepsy: From clinical practice to basic research focusing on the possible role of cannabidivarin

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CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Cancer Antitumor
major
N/A
Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells

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Glaucoma Antiglaucoma
moderate
NA
A Comparison of the Ocular and Central Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabigerol
Human immune diseases Immunosuppressive
moderate
NA
A Cannabigerol Derivative Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Huntington’s Disease Neuroprotectant
moderate
NA
Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice

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Irritable bowel syndrome Antiinflammatory
major
NA
Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease
MRSA Antibacterial
moderate
NA
Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Neuroinflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
A Cannabigerol Quinone Alleviates Neuroinflammation in a Chronic Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Oxidative-stress related disorders Antioxidant
moderate
NA
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study
CBGA
(Cannabigerolic Acid)
Inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA
Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa.
CBN
(Cannabinol)
ALS Neuroprotectant
moderate
5mg/kg/day Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival
Low feeding behaviour Appetite Stimulant
minor
NA Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns
MRSA Antibacterial
moderate
NA Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study
Pain Analgesic
major
NA Comparative analgesic activity of various naturally occurring cannabinoids in mice and rats
Tonic-clonic seizure Anticonvulsant
moderate
NA Anticonvulsant properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids
Tumor Antitumor
moderate
100mg/kg,
200mg/kg,
50mg/kg
Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Acute psychosocial stress Anxiolytic
moderate
7.5mg,
12.5mg
Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress
ADHD Improves behaviour
moderate
71ng/mL Cannabis improves symptoms of ADHD
ADHD Neuroprotectant
moderate
NA Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Improved Refractory Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in an Adolescent by Increasing Intracortical Inhibition: A Case Report
ALS Neuroprotectant
moderate
NA The CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset
Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroprotectant
major
NA The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease
Anorexia Appetite Stimulant
moderate
2.5mg A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
Crohn’s Disease Antiinflammatory
minor
115mg Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Edema Antiinflammatory
minor
NA Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat
Emetic activity Antiemetic
moderate
10mg/m2 Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol delays the gastric emptying of solid food in humans: a double-blind, randomized study

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Glioblastoma multiforme Anticaner
major
NA A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma
Immobility Antidepressant
moderate
2.5mg/kg Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L
Intestinal inflammation Antiinflammatory
moderate
NA Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques
Friend leukemia virus-induced splenomegaly Antileukemic
major
200mg/kg Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids
Multiple Sclerosis Analgesic
minor
10mg Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
Neurological disorders Neuroprotectant
moderate
NA Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants
Neuropathic Pain Analgesic
major
25mg Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
Oxidative Stress Neuroprotectant
moderate
NA Reactive oxygen species and p38 phosphorylation regulate the protective effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the apoptotic response to NMDA
Oxidative Stress Antioxidant
minor
NA Understanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants
Pain Analgesic
minor
NA Increased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice
Pain Antinociceptive
moderate
1 and 5mg/kg Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists prevent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception in rats

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Spasticity Antispacity
minor
NA Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
THCA
(Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid)
Neurodegeneration Neuroprotective
moderate
10μM Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Acne Anti-acne
major
NA Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment
Epelipsy Anticonvulsant
moderate
0.25mg/kg Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) Antiinflammation
moderate
NA Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors
Nausea Antinausea
minor
10mg/kg Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats
Obesity Antiobesity
moderate
NA Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients.

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Secondary Materials

The following are study reviews and other materials of note

Cannabinoid Condition Treated Effect Study
CBC
(Cannabichromene)
Cancer Anticancer
moderate
The endocannabinoid system and cancer: Therapeutic implication
Depression(causes Insomnia and pain interactions) Antidepressant
minor
Review Article: Sleep, Pain and Cannabis
Epilepsy Antiepileptic
moderate
Marijuana Compounds: A Non-Conventional Therapeutic Approach to Epilepsy in Children
CBD
(Cannabidiol)
Bone diseases Stimulate Bone growth
moderate
Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Cancer Anticancer
moderate
Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug
Chronic Diseases Cerebroprotective
minor
Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke
Hypertension Antihypertension
moderate
Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?
Intestinal prokinetic Antiprokinetic
moderate
Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Neurodegenerative Disorders Neuroprotective
major
Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: Important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?
Psoriasis Antipsoriatic
moderate
Edible Marijuana: A New Frontier in the Culinary World
Schizophrenia
(Psychosis)
Antipsychosis
moderate
A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of a Translational Investigation
Spasticity Antispasticity
minor
Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
CBG
(Cannabigerol)
Breast cancer Antiproliferative
moderate
The endocannabinoid system and cancer: Therapeutic implication
CBN
(Cannabinol)
ALS Neuroprotective
moderate
Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
Bone Diseases Stimulate Bone Growth
minor
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Glaucoma Antiglaucoma
moderate
Cannabinoids and glaucoma
Osteoporosis Stimulate Bone Growth
minor
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
THC
(Tetrahydrocannabinol)
Anorexia Stimulate appetite
moderate
The cancer cachexia syndrome
Bipolar Neuroprotective
moderate
Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential
Bone Diseases Stimulate Bone Growth
moderate
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Crohn’s disease Antiinflammatory
major
Cannabis Finds Its Way into Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
Migraine Neuroprotective
minor
Cannabis for migraine treatment: the once and future prescription? An historical and scientific review
Osteoporosis Stimulate Bone Growth
minor
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Spasm and pain Antispasmodic
moderate
Prescribing Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis
THCV
(Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Bone Diseases Bone Stimulant
moderate
Role of cannabinoids in the regulation of bone remodeling
Pain Analgesic
moderate
Are cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the endocannabinoid system? A systematic review